Properly applied, glass and metal primers used for windshield replacement dry very quickly and should always be completely dry before the windshield is installed. How long it takes for the adheisive to reach a full cure depends on the type of urethane used, temperature, relative humidity, etc. It can be as little as a few hours or as long as a couple of days, but even before reaching full cure the urethane skins over so there should be little or no lingering smell, or at least I have never noticed it and I've never had a customer mention an unusual smell inside their car after I've replaced the windshield. I've also never used a primer or urethane that had what I would consider a sweet smell.
The only thing I can think of is that the shop may have used a glass or vinyl cleaner in the cleanup process that left a smell but that is really grasping at straws. Hopefully the glass shop that did the work will get back to you or perhaps someone else on this forum has had a different experience and can share some wisdom with you.